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Report on the CBD COP 12 Business and Biodiversity Forum
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Date: Mar 2015

On 12-14 October 2014, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity hosted a three day business and biodiversity forum in parallel with COP 12. Approximately 250 people participated in the various elements of the forum over the course of the three days. This included official representatives of Parties, businesses, associations, NGOs, academia and other stakeholder groups, and represented well over 30 countries. On day one, parallel events were organised to discuss the four key themes of COP 12; BioTrade, Sustainable Tourism, Commodity Production and the Global Partnership. On days two and three, discussion sessions focused on the issues and concerns surrounding the implementation of the aforementioned key themes.

 
Strengthening the Capacity in Integrating REDD+ Projects into BioTrade Strategies in Colombia
Symbol: UNCTAD/WEB/DITC/TED/2014/5
Date: Jun 2015

The combination of REDD+ and BioTrade offers additional financial incentives for developing countries to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation while sustainably using and tradings derived products and services such as essential and vegetable oils, and ecotourism, among others. Harnessing these opportunities for developing countries is what UNCTAD aimed to explore and enhance through the project ""Strengthening the capacity of policy-makers and business leaders in three BioTrade beneficiary countries in integrating REDD+ projects into BioTrade strategies"" in Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil.

This report presents the findings of the project in Colombia. It provides an overview of the regulatory framework, initiatives, opportunities and constraints pertaining to the implementation of REDD+ and BioTrade in Colombia. It also analyses the feasibility of linking REDD+ strategies and BioTrade in Colombia and provide recommendations on the way forward.

 
Strengthening the Capacity in Integrating REDD+ Projects into BioTrade Strategies in Ecuador
Symbol: UNCTAD/WEB/DITC/TED/2015/2
Date: Jun 2015

The combination of REDD+1 and BioTrade offers additional financial incentives for developing countries to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation while sustainably using and tradings derived products and services such as essential and vegetable oils, and ecotourism, among others. Harnessing these opportunities for developing countries is what UNCTAD aimed to explore and enhance through the project ""Strengthening the capacity of policy-makers and business leaders in three BioTrade beneficiary countries in integrating REDD+ projects into BioTrade strategies"" in Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil.

In Ecuador, the project aimed to address the following assumptions ""Is it possible to merge BioTrade and REDD+ projects? Are they complementary? Is there any advantage as to setting this double approach or is it better to keep them as separate efforts? Is there a reasonable strategy to pursue them consequently?"" The work started with an analysis of the background and the current developments on BioTrade and REDD+ in Ecuador, which led to establishing development drivers and common grounds. The national report compiles the findings, assessing the legal and policy frameworks related to sustainable development, climate change and REDD+, and biodiversity. It also describes the REDD+ and BioTrade´s evolution in Ecuador and maps their stakeholders.

 
The New EU Commission Proposal’s on Novel Foods Regulation (2013): A Preliminary Overview from the Perspective of Biodiversity-based and Traditional Products
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2014/2
Date: 1 June 2014

The EU Commission has recently published a new proposal to amend its novel foods regulation in December 2013. This is the second proposal for reforming the current EU novel foods regulation (1997). It seeks to address issues related to the scope of the regulation concerning new biotechnological developments such as cloning, but more importantly to respond to concerns regarding barriers faced by traditional foods exports from developing countries. The new EU Commission proposal (2013) contains a simplified and faster procedure for market authorization of traditional foods from third countries. Although the new proposal does not address all concerns expressed by biodiversity-rich countries and BioTrade organizations over the last 15 years, it is a clear step forward in the right direction. For instance, it suggests a much better and commensurate process for the marketing approval of traditional foods and biodiversity-based products than the current status quo under the 1997 EU novel food regulation. A preliminary overview of the process suggested in the new proposal and its implications is presented in this paper.

 
The Business Of Biotrade: Using Biological Resources Sustainably And Responsibly
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/BCC/2009/4
Date: 01 Feb 2014



 
BioTrade Designer's Toolkit - Fique
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2012/8
Date: 31 Dec 2013



 
BioTrade Designer's Toolkit - Crocodylus Moreletti
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2012/4
Date: 31 Dec 2013



 
Traceability Systems for a Sustainable International Trade in South East Asian Python Skins
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2013/6
Date: 31 Dec 2013

The 15th and 16th meetings of the Conference of the Parties to CITES decided to consider the feasibility of implementing a traceability system for snake skins based on available studies and reports, and after guidance and recommendations from its Standing Committee. In response, UNCTAD and the CITES Secretariat jointly commissioned this scoping study on " Traceability Systems for a sustainable international trade in South East Asian Python Skins" (referred to as the Study hereafter) to provide analysis and options regarding existing marking and tracing systems, a traceability system to confirm the legal origin of snake skins, and the economic feasibility of current technologies to implement such a traceability and marking system. Specific recommendations to the CITES Animals Committee and Standing Committee would be elaborated by UNCTAD and the CITES Secretariat on inputs received from stakeholders during the consultations, briefings, meetings, peer reviews and workshops conducted in the course of preparing the Study, and from the discussions on the Study.

This Study has been prepared on the basis of inputs received from stakeholders during extensive and intensive consultations, briefings, meetings, peer reviews and workshops. Three key conclusions emerged from this work as follows: (1) there is an urgent need to mark all python skins traded, (2) there should be an inventory and tagging of all python skin stockpiles in South East Asia, and (3) there was recognition of the need for dedicated funding sources to annually support monitoring programs including research, management, enforcement, compliance, trade monitoring and conservation education. Related and additional findings from the Study are summarized below.

Annexes to the Study



 
1st BioTrade Congress Report - Biodiversity: The Life of the Green Economy
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2012/6
Date: 30 Sept 2013

This First BioTrade Congress is evidence of the progress made so far and of the broad scope of BioTrade activities. It was conceived as a platform where BioTrade and biodiversity stakeholders could share their experiences and lessons learned, and establish further cooperation in implementing sustainable practices on the path to “greening” biodiversity-based sectors. It also offers a chance to establish mechanisms for further cooperation in implementing sustainable practices in biodiversity-based sectors and corporate strategies. The Congress has touched upon several aspects of BioTrade such as BioTrade policy frameworks, information exchange and awareness raising, value chain enhancement and market creation and development.

The large participation, positive engagement and common vision from all participants during the First BioTrade Congress have made the creation of a more solid network possible and given a space for new business opportunities. The aim of this publication is to summarize the information emerging from the First BioTrade Congress, hoping to build upon what was discussed and further develop ideas towards reaching the full potential of BioTrade.

 
Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of BioTrade Products: Resource Assessment
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2012/1
Date: 23 July 2013

These guidelines will focus on the assessment of managed resources by providing additional detail, key ecological concepts and methodologies for completing a resource assessment, and guidance to incorporate findings into management plans and monitoring systems.

The present document complements the guidelines developed by UNCTAD (2009) for the development and implementation of management plans for wildcollected plant species used by organizations working with natural ingredients.

Section 2 will feature examples of applied resource assessments using specific case studies for three traded species based on two information sources: existing cases of UNCTAD BioTrade partners and examples from scientific publications or project reports.

 
International Trade Forum Magazine - Issue 2: Sustainable Development
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Date: 01 Jul 2013

This second issue of ITC's International Trade Forum quarterly publication outlines international efforts to achieve trade growth in developing countries (as in developed countries), while at the same time minimizing the environmental and social impact. It features a contribution from Dr Supachai Panitchpakdi, Secretary-General of UNCTAD, and a presentation of the BioTrade Initiative.

 
Implications for BioTrade of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2011/9
Date: 20 Jan 2012

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible implications that the Nagoya Protocol may have for the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative as well as for BioTrade actors at different points of the value chain. It examines, in particular:
1. What activities are considered to be ‘BioTrade’
2. How BioTrade activities may be treated under the CBD
3. What new obligations are imposed by the Nagoya Protocol and how they relate to the CBD
4. What ‘utilization’ of genetic resources means under the Nagoya Protocol and implications of this concept particularly in relation to ‘derivatives’
5. Whether Principle 3 of the ‘BioTrade principles and criteria’, which already incorporates the principle of benefit sharing, needs to be adapted in the light of the Nagoya Protocol.


 
Improving International Systems for Trade in Reptile Skins based on Sustainable Use
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2011/7
Date: 1 Jan 2012

The aim of the present report is to examine the changing context within which the reptile skin trade has existed (“where we came from”), the extent of the current industry and its regulatory strengths and weaknesses (“where we are now”), and what the future can or should bring (“where we go from here”). In terms of future directions, there appear to be at least three key themes that need to be considered:

Increasing the public profile of the reptile skin industry by fostering more engagement in market-based incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of reptiles and their habitats.
Identifying and prioritizing current and potentially positive and negative issues linked to production and trade of reptile skins, bearing in mind that public support ultimately hinges on the positives outweighing the negatives.
Examining ways in which collaboration between the private sector, governments and international organizations can be beneficial to conservation, trade and the stakeholders involved.



 
The BioTrade Impact Assessment System
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2010/9
Date: 1 Jan 2012

The BT IAS has been conceived as an information management tool that partners can access through the Internet to obtain information and/or to enter data into the system. As much as possible, the BT IAS intends to build on the existing information and activities already implemented by partners. BioTrade partners will compile the information in the field based on the agreed indicators and datasheets, as part of their monitoring and evaluation systems. For other partners who have developed or will develop their database systems, the process would be to establish linkages to share information already available (e.g. UEBT, GEF/CAF/UNEP project). As a result, the system will then compile and process all the data received to prepare reports on the impact of BioTrade worldwide. These reports can be used, for instance, to show the impact of BioTrade to beneficiary governments, donors and MEAs (CBD, CITES and the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership [BIP]) while identifying areas for improvements.

 
Trade and Biodiversity: The BioTrade Experiences in Latin America.
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2010/3
Date: 1 Jan 2012

This paper is divided in eight sections. The second section refers to the framework of the BioTrade Initiative, providing an overview of its programmes and outcomes, particularly in Latin America. The third section describes the market potential of biodiversity-based products and proposes the value-chain approach as a way to capture this potential. Section four presents the business case for biodiversity with four BioTrade case studies in Latin America. International issues related to BioTrade are described in section five, and challenges and opportunities to develop BioTrade are shown in section six. Intellectual Property Rights, their relevance to BioTrade and some examples are presented in section seven. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are in section eight.

 
BioTrade and the BioTrade Initiative (Brochure)
Symbol: UNCTAD/WEB/DITC/TED/2011/1
Date: Jul 2011

This brochure presents the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative and its work to stimulate trade and investment in biological resources to further sustainable development in line with the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

 
Definitions, Concepts and History of Safe Food Use Assessment
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/BCC/2009/5
Date: 1 Nov 2009



 
Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of Management Plans for Wild-collected Plant Species used by Organizations Working with Natural Ingredients.
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/8
Date: 1 Jan 2009

This document provides a series of general guidelines to develop management plans for wild species, which are documents to manage the natural resources used by BioTrade organizations. UNCTAD’s interest is to ensure that the contents of this publication correspond to the fulfillment of BioTrade Principles and Criteria, and that it provides special support for the implementation of principle 2 on the sustainable use of biodiversity.

For this reason, particular emphasis has been placed on organizations (e.g. communities, associations and companies) that are interested in implementing the BioTrade Principles and Criteria.

 
Lineamientos para elaborar e implementar planes de manejo de recolección silvestre de plantas utilizadas por empresas de ingredientes naturales
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/8
Date: 1 Jan 2009



 
Lineamientos metodológicos para el apoyo a cadenas de valor de productos de Biocomercio De la selección de productos al desarrollo de estrategias sectoriales
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/BCC/2008/1
Date: 1 Jan 2008



 
Guidelines for a Methodology to Support Value Chains for BioTrade Products: From the Selection of Products to the Development of Sector Strategies
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/BCC/2008/1
Date: 1 Jan 2008



 
BioTrade Verification Framework for Native Natural Ingredients
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Date: Jun 2007

Following consultations with actors from the public and private sectors, the BioTrade Facilitation Programme (BTFP) has been exploring the possibility of developing a verification system for BioTrade activities. As part of this activity, the need of a verification framework for “flagship” BioTrade products and the possibility to bridge the framework with existing certification schemes has been identified.

 
BioTrade Principles and Criteria
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/4
Date: Jun 2007

To guide the work of the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative and its BioTrade Facilitation Programme (BTFP) in the promotion of trade of and investment in BioTrade products and services, a set of Principles and Criteria have been developed.

 
Tropical Flowers and Foliage Market Scan of the European Union
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Date: Aug 2006

This Eurpean market scan publishes findings on the market potential of tropical flowers and foliage for European export. Having conducted interviews with importers from France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain and the United Kingdom, this report sheds light on the current climate in Europe for the export of tropical flowers, highlighting the challenges ahead and possible opportunities for the future. It also constitutes important market research that can be used as a tool to develop export plans for companies considering exporting tropical flowers to Europe.

 
The BioTrade Initiative and Verification
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Date: May 2006

Producers taking part in the BioTrade programme have expressed an interest in having their efforts recognised by the market. In response to this, the BioTrade Initiative has carried out a study on the possibilities for a verification/certification mechanism for BioTrade. This has led to the system presented in this document, composed of an enabling framework: the Ethical Union for BioTrade.

 
First experiences in the support of value chains for BioTrade products
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Date: March 2006

This publication gathers concrete experiences which demonstrate the importance of promoting BioTrade as an incentive to implement the CBD objectives. These experiences demonstrate the challenge to systematically involve different environmental, social economic and technological aspects associated with the development of products and their trade, such as the importance of promoting a corporate vision among all actors who in one way or another are associated with the trade of biodiverse products. This document is the first compilation of the results from BTFP experiences gained in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

 
Paiche (Arapaima gigas)
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Date: March 2005

The market brief on Arapaima gigas profiles EU market for this native South American species and its derivativesis. One the biggest freshwater fish in the world, this fish has been part of the staple diet of Amerindians living in the Amazon basin. Due to increasing human pressure, its population has been in steady decline since the 1960s. The flesh of this fish is not exported and is mainly consumed in local markets. Nevertheless, due to the constant growth of fish consumption in Europe and the USA, interest of fish buyers and local investors in Arapaima giga is increasing rapidly.

 
BioTrade Implementation Strategy
Symbol: UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2005/5
Date: March 2005

This document describes the current implementation strategy of the BioTrade Initiative. It takes stock of the various programmes that it supports, the lessons learned, and outlines the priorities for the period 2005-2006.

 
Baobab (adansonia digitata L.)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: March 2005

The market brief on Adansonia digitata L., profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the phyto-pharmaceutical, pharmaceutical and herbal industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
Gavid, Guaviduca (Piper pallidirameum)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: Jan 2005

The market brief on Piper pallidirameum, profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the cosmetics (aromatherapy) and phytopharmaceutical industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
Brazil nut, Castaña (bertholletia excelsa)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: Jan 2005

The market brief on Bertholletia excelsa, profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the cosmetics (aromatherapy) and phytopharmaceutical industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
Jagua, Huito (genipa americana)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: Jan 2005

The market brief on Genipa americana, profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the personal care and food industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
Calabash, Totumo (crescentia cujete)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: Jan 2005

The market brief on Crescentia cujete, profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the phyto-pharmaceutical, pharmaceutical and herbal industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
Prontoalivio, Erva cidreira, Juanliama, Melissa (lippia alba)
Symbol: UNCTAD /DITC/TED/2005
Date: Jan 2005

The market brief on Lippia alba, profiles the EU market for this native South American species and its derivatives, used as natural ingredients in the cosmetics (aromatherapy) and phytopharmaceutical industries. This document was developed within a series of market briefs on selected natural ingredients derived from native species in beneficiary countries of the BTFP.

 
International Negotiations related to biodiversity and traditional knowledge
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Date: Dec 2001

This document presents the status of the main negotiations and debates linked to biodiversity and traditional knowledge. It emphasises the environmental, agricultural, and commercial aspects of intellectual property and human rights. The participation of all interested actors including indigenous communities is considered as a key element for achieving a consensus that will improve and broaden the development of biotrade activities. Several mechanisms to improve the negotiation and management capacity of contractual agreements and the country programmes are identified in several parts of the document.

 
Handbook on the mechanisms to protect traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities in the Andean Region.
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Date: Dec 2001

This handbook offers an objective, clear and user friendly perspective for policy decision-makers, international negotiators, local and indigenous communities' representatives, public and private sector institutions, and general public on how is possible and in which way a wide variety of instruments and mechanisms can be used to protect indigenous' knowledge, innovations and practices, including some related to traditional intellectual property. On the contrary to the general trends that mark the debate on the subject and acknowledging the constrains imposed, the authors assume that it is possible to find several alternatives to safeguard indigenous and local's interests between the different instruments of traditional intellectual property. Hence should not be excluded when considering eventual options.

 
Report of the UNCTAD Expert Meeting on Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices.
Symbol: TD/B/COM.1/EM.13/3
Date: Dec 2000

This report contains the results and recommendations of the deliberations made by different experts on policy issues for governments to take into consideration when trying to protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices. The themes addressed by the experts include the traditional knowledge function, trade and development, options and alternatives including possible sui generis systems.

 
Innovative mechanisms for the equitable distribution of the benefits from biodiversity and other related knowledge.
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Date: Dec 2000

This study examines the utilisation of several intellectual property instruments as appropriate figures to increase the trade opportunities of biodiversity derived products. The mechanisms proposed are basically the appellations of origin and trademarks. Some practical cases such as the Kava, the Neem tree and Basmati rice are presented as possible products which could be protected and commercialised.

 
UNCTAD BioTrade: Some considerations on Access, Benefit Sharing and Traditional Knowledge
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Date: Oct 2000

This document summarised several legal aspects that need to be taken into account when designing an integrated BioTrade strategy. Policies to establish and implement strategic plans and BioTrade country programmes are presented, including: a) legal instruments at all levels; b) mechanisms for capacity building; and c) access and benefit distribution systems. Some regional and national experiences are developed with the objective to provide a practical vision of existing strategies and country programmes.

 
Some considerations of Colombia's experience related to the protection of traditional knowledge, access and benefit sharing, and intellectual property rights.
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Date: Oct 2000

The objective of this study is to contribute with some inputs that can be used in Colombia in the process to establish appropriate mechanisms to protect traditional knowledge in the context of the access to genetic resources. The document presents: a) the existing consultative and legal participation mechanisms for traditional communities to protect their interests and rights; b) the issue of Intellectual Property Rights versus Traditional Knowledge; c) the most important elements for a legal proposal to protect traditional knowledge; and d) several practical cases in which the work carried out by the BIOTRADE Initiative of UNCTAD plays a facilitator role to promote sustainable development.

 
Regulating bioprospecting and protecting indigenous peoples knowledge in the Andean Community: Decision 391 and its overall impacts in the Andean region
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Date: Oct 2000

This document analyses the D. 391 of the Andean Community of Nations which established a common regional regime for access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge. It takes into account the objectives of the decision, its legal structure, as well as the fulfillment or not of its objective in practice.

 
Legal BioTrade Guidelines and Recommendations for the Andean Region
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Date: Sep 2000

The goal of this document is the presentation, in a simple manner, of a guideline on international agreements, legal issues and recommendations for the BioTrade country programmes in the Andean Region. In addition, the structure of the document is addressed to analyze the topics related to the following biodiversity products or services which could be included in the BioTrade country programmes: a) Trade of tangibles, including genetic resources, plant genetic resources, threatened species, agriculture products related to biodiversity and intermediary products; and b) Trade of intangibles, including traditional knowledge, mechanisms for benefit sharing, intellectual property, services and carbon emissions trading.